Bottle rePETe Bottle Gift Bag

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Minimum Order: 250
Imprinted Area: 3.5" h x 5.5" w on bag. Screen printed. Price includes 1 color, 1 side, 1 location
Production Time: Approx. 63 working days
Colors: Beet Red, Greenery Light Green, Oasis Green, Majolica Blue, Brittany Blue, Trekking Green, Bracken Brown, Heron Purple, Smoked Pearl Gray, Black
Retailer Discounts: Order by Phone 877-334-5323
Product Code: KGXTE-JYXOX
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Product Description

Made from our machine washable 100% post-consumer recycled PET fabric, the rePETe Bottle Gift Bag is a versatile bottle bag that holds wine, beer, olive oil, and spirits. A drawstring closure keeps the bottle secure and can easily be looped through a gift tag. Perfect for wineries and breweries who are committed to sustainability. Makes a keepsake that will be used and cherished for years to come. Price includes one color silkscreen on bag. Up to 7 colors available for an additional fee. Complies with FLA.

Editor's Notes

Our bottle rePETe bottle gift bag is available in Beet Red, Greenery Light Green, Oasis Green, Majolica Blue, Brittany Blue, Trekking Green, Bracken Brown, Heron Purple, Smoked Pearl Gray, and Black. It is made from machine washable 100% post-consumer recycled PET fabric. The rePETe bottle gift bag is a versatile bottle bag in which your clients can hold wine, beer, olive oil, spirits, or any other such bottle. It is one of our most environmentally friendly products, which is something your customers will surely appreciate. The bag comes with a drawstring closure, which keeps the bottle secure inside. It can also easily be looped through a gift tag. This is a particularly interesting feature, especially for those who own liquor stores, wineries, vineyards, or other such establishment, as they can give their customers the opportunity to gift wrap their purchases in an original and unusual way. The bottle rePETe bottle gift bag is particularly suitable for breweries and wineries which are committed to sustainability and want to demonstrate this commitment to their customers. It makes a wonderful keepsake that can be used and cherished for years to come. Every time your customers look at it, they will be reminded of your business again, since you can have your name and logo silk screened on the bag. For an additional fee, you can even increase this up to seven colors. The bag fully complies with FLA regulations. Please contact us today for a free, no obligation quotation and to get our design team to start on your artwork.

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How Good Is Red Wine For Us?

Is red wine really a cure all for everything that ails us? Well, maybe not everything, but it really does seem to have many proven health benefits, based upon clinical studies that have come out in recent years.

The very latest study is one that will be published in the journal Cancer Cell International. That study suggests that red wine can slow down the spread of lung cancer.

That study looked at red and white wine effects of 6 culture pallets that had millions of human lung cancer cells. The experiment was done four times to ensure it was not a fluke. The study’s authors said that the plates that were treated with red wine showed a 60% inhibition of the cancer cells. This means that the wine seemed to reduce the growth rate of the cancer cells. The effect was stronger with red wines than white wines.

What else is red wine good for?

Some of the common pluses of red wine include:
  • It’s good for your heart. Studies indicate that a compound in these wines called resveratrol can work as an antioxidant in your body. This could lead to lower cholesterol levels and help to reduce heart vessel blockages. It also is thought that resveratrol has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antiviral and anti-aging properties.

  • It can cut your risk of prostate cancer. According to research in Harvard Men’s Health Watch, men who drink up to seven glasses of red wine per week are 50% as likely to get prostate cancer.

  • Drinking red wine can make you feel less depressed. It is thought that resveratrol could have neuroprotective properties.

  • Drinking red wine may add years to your life, even if you eat a lot. A 2006 Harvard study determined that mice eating a high calorie diet lived longer when they drank red wine.

  • The Mediterranean Diet, which is known as one of the best out there, has you drink one glass of red wine every night.

Bonus benefit:

Red wine appears to harden tooth enamel. So, drinking a couple glasses of red wine daily seems to help to prevent tooth decay.

The French Paradox


The health information above shows that there might indeed be something to what is called the French Paradox. That is: Why is it that even with a diet heavy in saturated fats, such as cheeses, sauces and tasty croissants with butter, the French rate of obesity and heart disease is fairly low.

This fact has caused many researchers to wonder if there is a connection between heart health and red wine consumption. It is thought that this French connection shows that 1-2 glasses of red wine each day can cut your risk of heart disease, stroke and possibly diabetes. Some studies also show that drinking red wine can increase your good HDL cholesterol levels.

But experts claim that those cholesterol levels are just half of what helps to protect our hearts. Resveratrol seems to provide protection against blood flow problems in the brain, which could help wine to prevent strokes.

The French Paradox seems to be mostly due to the grape itself. Inside the grape are two antioxidants - the resveratrol in the skin and the proanthocyanidin in the seed. These antioxidants seem to be very effective in protecting our bodies against free radical damage, which often precedes major diseases, such as heart disease.

What Should You Drink? Opt for Dark Red!

If you do not like red wine, you also can drink white wine, but you want to be sure your white wine is high in antioxidants, such as tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. The best white wine for heart health seems to be Chardonnay. But overall, dark red wines have the most resveratrol. The reason for this is that dark red wines have the thickest grape skins. So, if you want the best heart protection, you should choose Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinor Noir and Merlot.

If you do not like wine or do not like to drink alcohol, all hope is not lost! You also can drink purple grape juice, or even take a resveratrol supplement.

If you do choose to partake in red wine, remember: a serving of wine is a single glass, or five ounces. If you drink the whole bottle, you are not getting more benefit. Actually, drinking too much can lead to cancer, liver problems and other serious diseases. Moderation is very important. But if you keep it to 1 or 2 glasses per day, red wine really does seem able to extend your life.



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Beginner’s Guide To Making Wine At Home

Wine is considered one of the most treasured and revered of all of the alcoholic beverages. Whether you consider yourself a seasoned wine expert or a novice, wine is truly a luxurious liquid. With the ever-growing popularity of at-home brewing kits for beer lovers, it's no wonder that making your own wine at home has caught on as well. It may seem as if wine is such a complex drink that there is no way an average person would be able to make their own at home, but this is simply not the case. With a few supplies and a little ingenuity, you can become your very own winemaker.

Equipment Needed

You will need several different pieces of equipment and materials in order to make wine. The most important item, of course, will be the container in which the wine will be stored. You can choose to store the wine in a large plastic gallon container (like a juice or milk container) or a glass container. Make sure that the container you choose to use is not scratched inside. You will also need a rubber stopper, a funnel, a long stirrer, vinyl tubing to serve as a siphon, and iodine sanitizing solution. The sanitizing solution is extremely important and will be used frequently throughout the process of making the wine. You will also want to purchase bottles with sealable tops once your wine has fermented so you can store it there. Some people also use a turkey baster to sample the wine as they go throughout the fermentation process. You will also need an airlock, which contains any released air and gasses that will come out as a result of mixing the ingredients. You can use something as simple as a balloon and some rubber bands. Of course, besides equipment, you will need the ingredients in order to make the wine. First, you will need to choose a juice for the base flavor of your wine. Any flavor you like will do. You can choose between apple juice, grape juice, or any number of other fruit juices. The ratio will be the amount of juice to the amount of wine. For example, one gallon of juice will yield one gallon of wine, and so on. You will also need about four pounds of sugar. Some people prefer to use brown sugar instead of white, and this can be up to your personal preference. Of course, in order for the fermentation process to work, you will also need yeast. You will need only one packet of yeast to make a gallon to five gallons of wine. In order for the wine to process correctly, you'll also need a few chemicals. These include sodium/potassium metabisulfite and potassium sorbate. These items can be found at many wine and home-brewing stores, online, or at chemical supply stores. Do not be intimidated by the chemicals; these are what make the juice, sugar, and yeast turn into wine.

The Winemaking Process

Once you've gathered all of your supplies and ingredients together, it is time to brew some homemade wine! Here are some step-by-step instructions to follow:
  1. Sterilize every single thing you are planning on using. This includes your wine container, bottles, stirrer, funnel, and any other equipment you are using. Everything must be completely clean and sterile or else the wine will not come out correctly.
  2. Pour one half of the juice into your large container and one pound of sugar into the container using the funnel. Shake well to ensure that the sugar dissolves into the juice. Do this again, adding another pound of sugar.
  3. Pour the yeast packet and sulfite into the bottle and mix well.
  4. Pour in more juice until there is about three to four inches of space between the liquid and the neck or top of the bottle. Yeast can cause the mixture to expand a bit, and you do not want it to overflow.
  5. Mix the entire thing together thoroughly for about two minutes using your sterilized stirrer.
  6. Attach your airlock to the bottle. Be sure if you're using a balloon to affix the balloon very tightly using several rubber bands so it will not pop off.
  7. Once the ingredients are properly mixed and your airlock is attached, it is time to allow the wine to ferment. Store it in a cool, dark place where temperatures range between 65 and 75 degrees. Keep it out of the way of children and pets.
  8. Check on the wine periodically for any leaks; if the airlock becomes loose, re-tighten it. Your wine should sit for about four to five weeks to allow complete fermentation. The wine should turn from cloudy to clear as it ferments.
  9. Using the sanitized turkey baster, take some wine from the container and taste it. If it is too bitter, you can add more sugar to the mixture to taste.
  10. After the wine has fermented and tastes good, it is time to move it to bottles. Make sure the bottles and caps are completely sterilized. Using the PVC tubing to siphon the wine from the large container, put the wine into each bottle and seal it completely tight.

Types of Homemade Wine

Since wine comes in a number of different varieties, you can also try to make different types on your own at home. Each type of wine may take a few different steps from the above, or the time it takes to ferment completely may vary. You can make wine out of anything, even vegetables, so the possibilities are endless. Most people, however, usually use an apple or grape juice base. Fruity wines typically take four to five weeks to make. Another type of wine is called a mulled wine, which is similar to a cider. The difference is that this wine is made with extra additions like cloves and spices and has a heartier taste. The difference between white wine and red wine comes from whether the skins of the grapes are on or off the wine when it ferments. If you make it at home, you can choose to use red or white grape juice. Chardonnay has more of an apple undertone, and a cabernet sauvignon will usually have elements of blackberry or other rich, dark berries. All in all, most homemade wines take a minimum of three weeks to no more than six weeks to ferment. (1836)

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Non Woven 2 Bottle Tote w/Window

2 bottle wine tote with clear window. Great gift item. 90 GSM non-woven polypropylene. Made from recycled material. (FATXC-HWAWZ)

Price Guide: $

Min Quantity: 250

Colors: Burgundy Red, Khaki Beige, Black

50 Top Cocktail Blogs of 2015

[caption id="attachment_2935" align="alignright" width="300"]top50cocktailblogs Use This Image If You Like![/caption] Finding the best cocktails isn't always easy and we're always on the hunt for a great cocktail no matter where we pony up. There are hundreds of libation ideas available, and a wide variety of places to get a drink. For people who want to mix their own drinks at home - whether for themselves or for a group of friends - locating recipes that work for them is important. They can try out a new twist on an old favorite, stick with something completely classic, or go off on an adventure to try drinks they have never experienced before. To explore all those options, there are a number of excellent cocktail blogs with a vast list of choices, and some great drink information, as well. To all those who made our list thank you for all your great writing and ideas! This list of the top 50 is more a collection of great cocktail blogs rather than a ranking.

1. Tuxedo No.2

This cocktail guide is all about simplicity and great aesthetics. The recipes have been thoroughly tested and are easily approached by beginners and those who are more experienced. Flavor profiles and historical information add to the allure of this great blog.

2. The Drink Blog

Morgan and Alice launched The Drink Blog because they wanted to provide an outlet for people who were looking for a great drink but weren't sure where to get one. There were plenty of places to get restaurant reviews, but someone needed to talk about the drinks.

3. Melbourne Cocktails

Focused on wild creativity, this cocktail blog has a deep commitment to quality and integrity. By taking an in-depth look at the bar scene, the blog discovers what lies beneath the surface of that scene and the great drinks that come out of it.

4. Two for the Bar

Two for the Bar was founded in 2013, and designed to illustrate the shared type of experience that can occur with the mixing of great cocktails and fine conversation. The recipes and stories intermingle to highlight cocktail culture and its value in all types of relationships.

5. is one of the go-to sites for all things drinking. It boasts an impressive array of cocktail recipes, along with plenty of drink-related information that can be used by beginners and those who are already more experienced in the art of drink making.

6. A Dash of Bitters

Operated by Brooklyn writer and hobbyist mixer Michael Dietsch, this blog take a careful look at spirits, cocktails, liqueur, bars, bitters, and barware. With so much information all contained in one place, it's an excellent resource for anyone who enjoys great drinks.

7. Stir and Strain

Marketed as a cocktail scratchpad, this blog is an online area to test out recipes and see what works and what doesn't. Exploring anything of interest in the cocktail world, host Elana delves into some of the more exotic facets of bars, cocktails, and drink culture.

8. Booze Nerds

Taking an expected nerdy approach to the art of making cocktails, the blog is intellectual and just a little bit obsessive. With a writing style that combines wit and accessibility, it's a great read for anyone who wants to explore the why and how of cocktail making in a unique way.

9. Gastronomista

The alchemy of cocktails is what this site is all about. It explores not just the way cocktails are created, but how their creation and consumption brings people together and creates memories that will last a lifetime and be very important to people in the group.

10. The Straight Up

This blog is run by Nick, who got his start in whiskey and then worked his way over to cocktails. The pre-prohibition drinks that are featured on the site are unique and different, and more modern options can also be found, along with excellent pictures and a nice design.


Mixology for the rest of us. Cocktail recipes and techniques for the amateur home bartender. The images and writing are just as interesting as the easy cocktails you can make at home. The author is definitely a cocktail aficionado and his work shows.

12. Rated R Cocktails

It's a tiki blog from Alabama, but it's also a serious look at great cocktails. While the site may be deliberately campy, the recipes themselves are serious and enticing, providing a lot of great reasons to check out all the blog has to offer and try out some great tasting drinks.

13. Ginhound

Ginhound comes all the way from Denmark, courtesty of Andrea and her love of spirits that are juniper flavored. It's not all she focuses on, though, and there are many great recipes to be found on the site, along with information on what she's learned about the cocktails she tries.

14. Tempered Spirits

Ian Lauer from Atlanta runs this blog, and is highly methodical about the information he presents. He doesn't just provide recipes. He provides an experience that surrounds each cocktail and ensures that readers get the whole story, not just a list of ingredients to mix.

15. Cocktail Virgin Slut

This blog is a drink and tell piece of information, operated by four people in Boston. It is open, honest, and refreshing, with some great recipes and information about the cocktails they have tried and the adventures they have been on to try different drinks.

16. Home Speakeasy

Home Speakeasy comes from amateur mixologists who want to try their hand at different things. The various mixes and trial and error style give readers the opportunity to follow along on the good and the bad journeys toward making some interesting and delicious drinks.

17. Intoxicology

There are a lot of sites that provide drink recipes, but not as many that also offer insight and information. This blog provides more than just ingredients lists, and can take the reader on a journey through some amazing drinks they can make to enjoy with friends.

18. The Five O'Clock Cocktail Blog

It's always five o'clock somewhere, and this blog makes sure readers won't be stuck without a great drink to try when the workday is over. The extensive list of different cocktails helps readers find just about anything they can think of, using their favorite liquors.

19. Cocktail Builder's Blog

Building cocktails can be easy or hard, depending on the drink. Either way, it's nice to have some help to build that next great drink. This blog provides that help, along with great information and a nice writing style to keep readers coming back to try new drink combinations.

20. Imbibe

Imbibe magazine has a blog that provides some excellent drink options to anyone who's looking for something unique or wants to find a fresh take on an old classic. With all the options available, readers are sure to locate a drink recipe (or several) that they will really enjoy.

21. Alcademics

Alcademics explores a more serious side of great drinks, but it's not stuffy. There are excellent pictures and great writing to appreciate, along with recipes that can really light up a get-together or provide a lot of relaxation at the end of a long day at work or at play.

22. Dowd on Drinks

Want to know what Dowd thinks? Dowd on Drinks provides recipes, but also great insight and information into cocktails, bars, events, and the art of mixology. With so much detail contained in one place, it's a great read to find out more about the world and culture of cocktails.

23. The Liquid Muse

Every good creative person needs a muse. This one just happens to come in liquid form. This site provides some great inspiration for different kinds of cocktails, from the classics to unique creations that will surely pique the readers' interest in trying something new.

24. The Cocktail Circuit

There are hundreds of different cocktails, and just as many places to drink them. Knowing where to get a great drink, or how to make one at home that tastes just as good, is what this site is all about. With great recipes and insider information, there's something for everyone.

25. Dr. Bamboo

From having everything needed to make a great drink to traveling and taking it all along to mix drinks on the road, Dr. Bamboo provides insight into creative options for drink making. With travel-related insights and local flair, the site has something great for any reader.

26. Talk Drinks

Want to talk about drinks? So do they. Recipes are important, of course, but it's also great to find out information about the history of the drinks, where to get them when traveling, and any tips that can be used to make a great drink even better in the future.

27. Cocktailians

With a deep and witty understanding of all things cocktail, along with great pictures and ideas, Cocktailians keeps reader interest. New recipes, great takes on old classics, and plenty of inside information all combine to create a site that's well worth the cocktail drinker's read.

28. Kaiser Penguin

For people who are tired of hearing about healthy eating and the food pyramid, why not try the drink pyramid? Kaiser Penguin offers some unique thoughts on drinking and cocktail culture, along with recipes that can be made right at home to please a variety of palates.

29. Jimmy's Cocktail Hour

When the workday is done, it's time for cocktail hour. Jimmy's provides insight into that great tradition, along with recipes to help readers make the most of their cocktail hour each day. Old classics and new options are both excellent choices for that relaxing drink.

30. Kegworks

Making cocktails for a party or big get-together can seem completely overwhelming, but it doesn't have to be that way. At Kegworks, readers can find information that helps them make big batch cocktails, or really perfect that one drink they just have to get right.

31. Dram Apothecary

With a simple design and great visuals, Dram Apothecary provides recipes for classic and more modern drinks, along with pictures and easy to follow instructions. Beginners and more seasoned cocktail makers can both enjoy what this site has to offer.

32. Creative Culinary

This blog provides both food and drink recipes, with some amazing and unique choices for cocktails that can be enjoyed alone or paired with great dinners. No matter the experience level of the reader, there are options for excellent drinks that can really make a day brighter.

33. Team Cocktail

Team Cocktail likes to party, and likes to go on cruises. Readers can follow along and enjoy the great drink recipes, while keeping up with the team's adventures. There are even ways that readers can join in the fun and go on cruises, as well.

34. Cocktail Hacker

Hack into those familiar cocktails and release all the great knowledge they hold. Exploring how cocktails come together and how they can be adjusted and reformed can lead to some fine new drink creations that are sure to please beginners and more experienced mixers alike.

35. Cocktail Deeva

Being a diva isn't always a bad thing, but being a deeva is better. This site explores some of the best higher-end cocktails, along with some more casual creations that are easy to make but that taste great and can be used at nearly any occasion.

36. Art of Drink

Drinking can be an art form, when the drinks are made the right way. This site explores the fine ways to make a number of cocktails, and provides great recipes readers can use to make their own wonderful drink creations.

37. The Rum Howler Blog

Straightforward and to the point, without a lot of fluff and visual effects, this blog gives the reader plenty of in-depth information along with recipes that cna be used for a single person or a big get-together of friends and family.

38. Shake+Strain

Who doesn't want a butterscotch cocktail? This site offers some very unique options for drinks, along with pictures, articles, and videos about events and recipes that just can't be ignored. It's a great way to learn more about the love of drink.

39. Baby Got Sauce

Getting sauced won't be necessary, but it's possible to find all kinds of good information about cocktails and other drinks on this site. With a simple design, it doesn't rely on a lot of flair to make its case, but there are great recipes to be found there.

40. The Santa Fe Barman

When getting information about cocktails, why not get it from an actual barman? He knows his stuff, and he's willing to teach it to his readers, with great recipes and insider tips about what to buy and how to really mix drinks that everyone will love.

41. The Drink Factory

The Drink Factory was started in 2005, and is a collective of bartenders with a like-minded attitude toward great drinks. Founder Tony Conigliaro and his contributors push the boundaries they see in traditional recipes to create something new and amazing for cocktail drinkers to experience.

42. Jeffrey Morgenthaler

Most cocktail enthusiasts recognize Jeffrey's name, as he's quite popular in the right circles. Whether readers have heard of him or not, though, what he has to offer is worth checking out. Plenty of great recipes for excellent cocktails can be found on his site.

43. The Intoxicologist

Making cocktails can be just as intoxicating as drinking them, and there are many wonderful reasons to mix up and enjoy a drink. Whether relaxing after a long day or spending time with friends at a great party, The Intoxicologist can help readers have a good time.

44. Liquor Snob

Not everyone likes all the changes that have taken place in the world of cocktails today. Some of the newer drinks are more like candy or a meal of sorts, and don't always reflect past cocktail happiness. Readers can find both old and new recipes here.

45. The Cocktail Chronicles

Chronicling everything cocktail takes time and effort, and readers can find that here. The site provides great recipes, but there's also a lot of information about where cocktails came from and where they appear to be going as drinks evolve.

46. Just Make Me Something

Ever just want something - anything - with alcohol in it? Just Make Me Something has that covered. There are plenty of excellent recipes to be found there, so readers can just make themselves or someone else something unique and different that they'll really enjoy.

47. Cocktail Professor

Understanding cocktails isn't necessary to drink and enjoy them, or even to mix them up, but that knowledge can be a lot of fun. The Cocktail Professor teaches readers all they need to know about great drinks and how to mix them the right way.

48. 3st of the Month

Need a drink? 3st of the Month can help. With plenty of options for great drinks, and a lot of good information about cocktail culture in general, readers of this site are sure to find what they need when it comes to the old favorites or something new and different.

49. ThirstyNYC

For readers who live in NYC, or those who just love to learn about the area and the cocktail culture there, this site is the right one. There are recipes, along with bar reviews and insider information that can be used to really get the feel of NY.

50. Infusapalooza

Infusapalooza offers great visuals to go with excellent recipes and quality writing. It's a site that has a lot to offer, and can help both beginners and more experienced cocktail creators find what they need to make their next great drink.

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Science Experiments with Wine, Water, Milk and Beer

scienceexperiements For an entertaining introduction to chemistry, show your friends that it's possible to transform water into wine, wine into milk, and milk into beer. While you can't actually drink any of the substances, you will marvel at how completely the fluid can change in appearance. The basic experiment starts with a glass of simple water, which you pour into a series of glasses so that the substance goes through three chemical changes. However, some variations also exist, if you have limited time or materials and wish to do a simpler experiment.

For the basic "water into wine into milk into beer" experiment, you actually do not start with water at all but with sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), which is a weak base. For the first step of the experiment, you pour this substance into the "wine glass," which should contain a few drops of a phenolphthalein indicator. An indicator, such as phenolphthalein, is a substance that changes color depending on the acidity of the environment. Since the sodium carbonate is a base, or alkaline, it will turn deep red when it mixes with the phenolphthalein. However, remember that you are not dealing with real water or with real wine. In fact, phenolphthalein is highly toxic, so you should avoid touching it and absolutely not drink the solution. After you have impressed your audience by changing water into wine, pour the Na2CO3 and phenolphthalein solution (your "wine") into a third glass. For the most dramatic effect, make this one a tall drinking glass, the sort that you would drink milk from. Inside this third glass, you should already have BaCl2, or barium chloride. When the "wine" mixes with the barium chloride, a chemical reaction will take place, as the chloride ions react with the barium ions. As a result, some barium carbonate is formed (BaCO3). This is a white, solid precipitate. As a result, your "beverage" will now appear opaque and white, just like milk. Bear in mind that barium chloride is also toxic when inhaled, ingested, or touched. Therefore, avoid touching or sniffing the solution. Finally, you can transform the "milk" into "beer." First, you should have a beer stein prepared with a small amount of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and some bromothymol blue indicator. Bear in mind that hydrochloric acid is highly caustic, so you should practice extreme care in handling it, never touching the substance directly. Always wear eye protection and protective gloves, and avoid breathing the fumes directly. When you pour the "milk" into your beer stein, the barium carbonate that was created in the milk glass will react with the strong acid. As a result, the reaction will produce barium ions, water, and carbon dioxide gas. As the gas bubbles rapidly rise to the surface, they will resemble the head on a glass of beer. Meanwhile, the bromthymol blue will turn a yellow-brown color in the presence of acid, just like beer. Another experiment focuses on changing between water, wine, milk, and "fizzy lemonade." This time, you begin with potassium manganate, your "water". Pour this solution into a first glass, which contains sodium thiosulphate and barium chloride. You will see your mixture turn from clear to a deep red color, just like wine. Next, pour the "wine" into a third glass, with barium sulphate, to show the wine turn into "milk." Finally, pour the resulting mixture into a fourth glass, which should contain a small amount of sodium carbonate. When the acidic sodium thiosulphate "milk" mixes with the sodium carbonate, the solution will turn nearly clear, with lots of fizzy bubbles. Another simple and popular experiment lets you simply change "water" to "wine." A shorter variation on the full water-wine-milk-beer process, it's ideal if you have limited time or materials. For this chemical reaction, start with a glass of water and add a small amount of sodium hydroxide to make the solution slightly alkaline. Put a few drops of phenolphthalein in the second glass, just as you did for the water-wine-milk-beer experiment. When you pour the water into the second glass, watch as the solution goes from clear to deep red. Another variation of this experiment displays the same apparent "magic," but uses different materials. For this experiment, make a solution of vitamin C, dissolved in water, as well as iodine. Make another solution of water, hydrogen peroxide, and starch. At first, the solution will just turn a slight milky color. As the vitamin C reacts and "consumes" the iodine ions, the iodine begins to react with the hydrogen peroxide, turning the solution a deep bluish red, just like wine. In fact, the reactivity of iodine with vitamin C also makes it a good substance for experiments that test the vitamin C content of various foods. If you want a simple experiment that doesn't require many materials, you can simply do the "wine to water swap" experiment. You will merely need two small glasses, a bit of heavy paper (like cardstock), some water, and some wine. Fill one glass with water and the other with wine. Cover the water glass with the paper and flip it over to sit atop the wine glass. Quickly remove the separator and watch as the wine rises to the top and the water moves to the bottom. The impressive "switch" is because of wine's relatively lighter density, causing it to rise while the water sinks. (1844)

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Beer & Wine the Science of Fermentation

Over thousands of years, humans have harnessed the natural functions of yeast cells to produce fermented foods and beverages. While various cultures have developed many distinct fermentation methods, one of the most widely practiced fermentation processes is alcohol fermentation. In this type of fermentation, the activity of yeast cells produces ethanol, the toxic compound most widely known as alcohol. Since yeast can proliferate in various substances, provided that they have access to sugars, alcohol fermentation may make use of a wide variety of ingredients. For this reason, there exist such a range of alcoholic beverages. In essence, grapes or other fruits are used to "feed" the yeast cells in wine making. In beer making, the fermentation relies on grains instead of fruits. Beyond this basic difference, each process involves multiple critical steps, which have been developed over centuries of "trial and error."

To understand alcoholic fermentation, you must first understand what yeast is. Classified as a type of fungi, yeast is a living, single-celled organism. Like any other living thing, a yeast cell requires sustenance, which it finds in the form of sugars. For this reason, whether you are baking bread or brewing beer, the critical first step in fermentation is to combine yeast cells with some form of sugar. As grains and fruits both contain large quantities of sugars, they are the predominantly used ingredients in alcoholic fermentation. When the conditions are favorable for the yeast cells, they metabolize these sugars and, in the process, they give off two by-products: alcohol and carbon dioxide. The basic fermentation process transforms the sugars present in various foodstuffs into alcohol and carbon dioxide. This release of carbon dioxide is why you notice a bubbling or frothing in fermenting foods and beverages. This is also the origin of the term "fermentation," which can be traced to the Latin word fervere, meaning "to boil." The alcohol, or ethanol, that is produced is what gives spirits their intoxicating capacity. Alcohol is a toxic substance to living organisms, which is why its effects on the human system are described as "intoxication." The drinker's metabolic system must respond to the intake of intoxicating beverages much as it would respond to any other class of poison, in order to maintain the organism's overall health. Likewise, once the fermentation process produces a certain quantity of alcohol, the toxic by-product will kill off the original yeast population. Usually, yeast can survive in a solution with a content of up to about 18 percent alcohol. For this reason, any alcoholic beverage produced through fermentation alone will contain no more than 18 percent alcohol. Varieties of liquor with higher alcohol content make use of a secondary process, called distillation, following fermentation. In the case of both beer and wine, the beverage is produced through fermentation alone. Wine is essentially fermented fruit juice, and most often, fermented grape juice. To produce wine, grapes are harvested and crushed, producing juice. This juice is allowed to ferment, relying on the naturally present yeast organisms. In modern winemaking, sulfur dioxide is typically added at this stage to remove any unwanted bacteria. When white wines are produced, the grape skins and stems are removed from the fermenting juice solution. For red wines, the whole grape is left in throughout fermentation. Therefore, despite widespread misunderstanding, both red and white wines are often produced from red grapes. Depending on the type of wine desired, this fermentation process may take just a couple weeks. In general, the longer that fermentation goes on, the more sugar is converted into alcohol, resulting in a less sweet (or "drier") and more alcoholic beverage. To produce beer, various grains are used instead of grapes as the source of sugars. Barley is among the most common grains used, though wheat, rye and other grains have also been used throughout history in various regions. Whereas grapes are simply pressed to provide grape juice for wine, the grain used for beer must first be dried. This drying process converts the starches present in grain into sugars. The dried grains are known as malt, and constitute the first ingredient in beer. The second key ingredient is hops. A cluster of flowers from the Humulus lupulus plant, hops slightly change the flavor and aroma of beer. In addition, hops give beer its clear, sparkling appearance and leach bacteria from the fermenting solution, reducing the risk of spoilage. The third ingredient of beer is water, which enables the yeast, malt and hops to mix and for fermentation to take place.

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